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This page was last edited on 4 May 2018, at 20:11. Follow the link for more information. Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim’s data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid. Ransomware attacks are typically carried out using a Trojan that is disguised as a legitimate file that the user is tricked into downloading or opening when it arrives as an email attachment.

Starting from around 2012 the use of ransomware scams has grown internationally. It is called cryptoviral extortion and it was inspired by the fictional facehugger in the movie Alien. The attacker generates a key pair and places the corresponding public key in the malware. To carry out the cryptoviral extortion attack, the malware generates a random symmetric key and encrypts the victim’s data with it. It uses the public key in the malware to encrypt the symmetric key.

This is known as hybrid encryption and it results in a small asymmetric ciphertext as well as the symmetric ciphertext of the victim’s data. The attacker receives the payment, deciphers the asymmetric ciphertext with the attacker’s private key, and sends the symmetric key to the victim. The victim deciphers the encrypted data with the needed symmetric key thereby completing the cryptovirology attack. The symmetric key is randomly generated and will not assist other victims. Ransomware attacks are typically carried out using a Trojan, entering a system through, for example, a downloaded file or a vulnerability in a network service. Payment is virtually always the goal, and the victim is coerced into paying for the ransomware to be removed—which may or may not actually occur—either by supplying a program that can decrypt the files, or by sending an unlock code that undoes the payload’s changes.

A key element in making ransomware work for the attacker is a convenient payment system that is hard to trace. The first known malware extortion attack, the «AIDS Trojan» written by Joseph Popp in 1989, had a design failure so severe it was not necessary to pay the extortionist at all. Its payload hid the files on the hard drive and encrypted only their names, and displayed a message claiming that the user’s license to use a certain piece of software had expired. The idea of abusing anonymous cash systems to safely collect ransom from human kidnapping was introduced in 1992 by Sebastiaan von Solms and David Naccache. This electronic money collection method was also proposed for cryptoviral extortion attacks.

The notion of using public key cryptography for data kidnapping attacks was introduced in 1996 by Adam L. Examples of extortionate ransomware became prominent in May 2005. By mid-2006, Trojans such as Gpcode, TROJ. Symantec has classified ransomware to be the most dangerous cyber threat.

In 2011, a ransomware Trojan surfaced that imitated the Windows Product Activation notice, and informed users that a system’s Windows installation had to be re-activated due to » victim of fraud». In February 2013, a ransomware Trojan based on the Stamp. In July 2013, a 21-year-old man from Virginia, whose computer coincidentally did contain pornographic photographs of underaged girls with whom he had conducted sexualized communications, turned himself in to police after receiving and being deceived by ransomware purporting to be an FBI message accusing him of possessing child pornography. The converse of ransomware is a cryptovirology attack invented by Adam L. Young that threatens to publish stolen information from the victim’s computer system rather than deny the victim access to it. With the increased popularity of ransomware on PC platforms, ransomware targeting mobile operating systems has also proliferated. Typically, mobile ransomware payloads are blockers, as there is little incentive to encrypt data since it can be easily restored via online synchronization.

In 2012, a major ransomware Trojan known as Reveton began to spread. Reveton initially began spreading in various European countries in early 2012. In May 2012, Trend Micro threat researchers discovered templates for variations for the United States and Canada, suggesting that its authors may have been planning to target users in North America. Department of Justice on 2 June 2014. However, this flaw was later fixed. 0, enhanced its code to avoid antivirus detection, and encrypts not only the data in files but also the file names.

Fusob is one of the major mobile ransomware families. Between April 2015 and March 2016, about 56 percent of accounted mobile ransomware was Fusob. Like a typical mobile ransomware, it employs scare tactics to extort people to pay a ransom. 200 USD or otherwise face a fictitious charge. In order to infect devices, Fusob masquerades as a pornographic video player.

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