Please help fix them or discuss these issues on the talk page. The English used in this article or section may creative cloud how many computers be easy for everybody to understand. You can help Wikipedia by reading Wikipedia:How to write Simple English pages, then simplifying the article.
This article may have too many red links. You can help Wikipedia by writing articles to help lower the number of red links. In Computer science, cloud computing describes a type of outsourcing of computer services, similar to the way in which electricity supply is outsourced. They do not need to worry where the electricity is from, how it is made, or transported.
The idea behind cloud computing is similar: The user can simply use storage, computing power, or specially crafted development environments, without having to worry how these work internally. 0 and other technology trends, all of which depend on the Internet for satisfying users’ needs. Cloud computing often uses grid computing, has autonomic characteristics and is billed like utilities, but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model. The majority of cloud computing infrastructure currently consists of reliable services delivered through data centers that are built on computer and storage virtualization technologies. As customers generally do not own the infrastructure or know all details about it, mainly they are accessing or renting, so they can consume resources as a service, and may be paying for what they do not need, instead of what they actually do need to use. A side effect of this approach is that «computer capacity rises dramatically» as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads. Adoption has been enabled by «increased high-speed bandwidth» which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.
Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Google, Amazon. The Cloud is a metaphor for the Internet, or more generally components and services which are managed by others. 2007 observed increased activity, including Google, IBM and a number of universities starting large scale cloud computing research project, around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. In August 2008 Gartner observed that «organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models» and that the «projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas». Clouds cross many country borders and «may be the ultimate form of globalisation». As such it is the subject of complex geopolitical issues, whereby providers must satisfy many legal restrictions in order to deliver service to a global market.
In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term ‘»cloud computing» in the United States. This is very similar to the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users. Capital expenditure minimized, therefore low barrier to entry as infrastructure is owned by the provider and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Performance is monitored and consistent but can be affected by insufficient bandwidth or high network load. Scalability which meets changing user demands quickly, without having to engineer for peak loads. Massive scalability and large user bases are common but not an absolute requirement.
Security which typically improves due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc. Accesses are typically logged but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. Sustainability through improved resource utilisation, more efficient systems and carbon neutrality. A cloud application influences The Cloud model of software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer’s own computer, thus reducing software maintenance, ongoing operations, and support.
The Cloud for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services, and which is in either case essentially useless without a Cloud. A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates cloud computing systems serve someone else. Usually this needs building and managing new data centers. The companies listed in the Components section are providers.